The association between body mass index, hypertension, and lifestyle on cardiovascular disease in Indonesian elderly
Keywords:Elderly, BMI, hypertension, lifestyle, heart disease
Background : Cardiovascular disease is one of the non-communicable diseases that causes most deaths in Indonesia. According to data from the Ministry of Health, coronary heart disease is the leading cause of all deaths at 26.4%. The rate of heart disease increases at a concerning pace every year, affecting at least 15 in 1000 Indonesians.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the relationship between BMI, hypertension, and lifestyle to heart disease in the elderly communities in Indonesia.
Methods: This study is a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study that uses secondary data from a questionnaire in the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 5 IIIB book. The sample includes elderly people in Indonesia who met both the inclusion and exclusion criteria and are registered as respondents in IFLS-5. The bivariate analysis used the Chi-Square test and the multivariate analysis used the multivariate logistic regression test.
Result: The result shows that there is a significant relationship between gender (p= 0.000; OR = 0.492; 95% CI= 0.351-0.691), education (p= 0.003; OR= 0.584; 95% CI= 0.409-0.833), BMI (p= 0.041; OR=1.748; 95% CI= 1.023-2.987), and smoking habits (p= 0.000; OR= 0.202; 95% CI= 0.125-0.327) with cardiovascular disease. The most significant factor is BMI (p= 0.041; OR=1.748; 95% CI= 1.023-2.987).
Conclusion: Gender, education, BMI, and smoking habits have a significant relationship with heart disease. BMI is the most significant factor and act as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovascular diseases [Internet]. Who.int. 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/cardiovascular-diseases#tab=tab_1. [Accessed: 31 January 2021].
Peltzer K, Pengpid S. Prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease among university students in nine ASEAN countries. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):237.
Hari Jantung Sedunia (World Heart Day): Your Heart is Our Heart Too - Direktorat P2PTM [Internet]. Direktorat P2PTM. 2021. Available from: http://p2ptm.kemkes.go.id/kegiatan-p2ptm/pusat-/hari-jantung-sedunia-world-heart-day-your-heart-is-our-heart-too. [Accessed: 10 January 2021].
Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Hasil Utama RISKERDAS 2018. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2018 p. 85.
Profil Penyakit Tidak Menular Tahun 2016. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan RI; 2017.
Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) Data and Documentation [Internet]. Rand.org. 2020. Available at: https://www.rand.org/well-being/social-and-behavioral-policy/data/FLS/IFLS/download.html. [Accessed: 21 December 2020].
Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity | Overweight & Obesity | CDC [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2020. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/defining.html.
Bell K, Twiggs J, Olin BR. Hypertension: The Silent Killer: Updated JNC-8 Guideline Recommendations. Alabama Pharmacy Association. 2015. Available at: https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.aparx.org/resource/resmgr/CEs/CE_Hypertension_The_Silent_K.pdf.
IPAQ scoring protocol - International Physical Activity Questionnaire [Internet]. Sites.google.com. 2020. Available at: https://sites.google.com/site/theipaq/scoring-protocol. [Accessed: 21 December 2020].
Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) Data and Documentation [Internet]. Rand.org. 2020. Available from: https://www.rand.org/well-being/social-and-behavioral-policy/data/FLS/IFLS/download.html. [Accessed: 21 December 2020].
Maharani A, Sujarwoto, Praveen D, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence and estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk scores in Indonesia: The SMARThealth Extend study. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(4):e0215219.
Rodgers J, Jones J, Bolleddu S, et al. Cardiovascular risks associated with gender and aging. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2019;6(2):19.
Benjamin E, Muntner P, Alonso A, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019; 139(10):e56-e528.
Hussain M, Al Mamun A, Peters S, et al. The burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to major modifiable risk factors in Indonesia. Journal of Epidemiology. 2016;26(10):515-521.
Suherwin S. Hubungan usia, jenis kelamin dan riwayat penyakit dengan kejadian penyakit jantung koroner di instalasi gawat darurat Rumahsakit TK.II dr. AK. Gani Palembang Tahun 2016. Jurnal ‘Aisyiyah Medika. 2018;1.
Determinants of health [Internet]. Who.int. 2017. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/determinants-of-health. [Accessed: 4 November 2021].
Havranek E, Mujahid M, Barr D, et al. Social determinants of risk and outcomes for cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2015;132(9):873-898.
Dégano IR, Marrugat J, Grau M, et al. The association between education and cardiovascular disease incidence is mediated by hypertension, diabetes, and body mass index. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):12370.
McKee AM, Morley JE. Obesity in the Elderly. [Updated 2021 Sep 19]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532533/. [Accessed: 4 November 2021].
Anggraini D, Adelin P. Risk factors of cardiovascular disease in elderly in Guguak Kabupaten 50 Kota, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Human Care Journal. 2020;5(1):348.
Carbone S, Canada J, Billingsley H, et al. Obesity paradox in cardiovascular disease: where do we stand?. Vascular Health and Risk Management. 2019;15:89-100.
Mozaffarian D, Benjamin E, Go A, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2015 Update. Circulation. 2015;131:e29–e322.
Rulandani R, Wijayanegara H, Hikmawati D. hubungan usia, jenis kelamin, tekanan darah dan dislipidemia dengan penyakit jantung koroner. Prosiding Pendidikan Dokter. 2015;1(2):225-231.
Hypertensive heart disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Medlineplus.gov. Available at: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm
Roy A, Rawal I, Jabbour S, et al. Chapter 4 Tobacco and Cardiovascular Disease: A Summary of Evidence [Internet]. 2017. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525170/. [Accessed: 4 November 2021].
Setyaji D, Prabandari Y, Gunawan I. Aktivitas fisik dengan penyakit jantung koroner di Indonesia. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia. 2018;14(3):115.
Nystoriak MA, Bhatnagar A. Cardiovascular Effects and Benefits of Exercise. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018;5:135.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Penyakit Dalam Udayana
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The copyright to this article is transferred to JPD (including without limitation, the right to publish the work in whole or in part in any and all forms of media, now or hereafter known) effective if and when the article is accepted for publication thus granting JPD all rights for the work so that both parties may be protected from the consequences of unauthorized use.
The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline,online) or any other reproductions of similar nature.
The authors warrant that their contribution is an original work not published elsewhere, that they have the full power to make this grant and that the article contains no matter unlawful or which invades the right to privacy or infringes any proprietary right.